Sterilisation in women refers to a procedure that results in the prevention of the egg to the uterus, as well as the blocking of the passage of sperm to the area in which fertilisation occurs. Sterility is permanent after the procedure, which is also known as tubal ligation, has taken place.
During laparoscopic surgery, your surgeon will make incisions in your abdomen, and use a laparoscope to close the fallopian tubes. In some cases, the fallopian tubes are removed completely. For more on minimally invasive or laparoscopic surgery, see here. This kind of sterilization procedure is very effective, and has permanent results. It is also safe and convenient for patients who have decided that they do not want to become pregnant.
Another option is to undergo a procedure known as a minilaparotomy, which occurs a day or two after giving birth. Your surgeon will make an incision in the abdomen, and remove part of the fallopian tubes on each side.
Hysteroscopic sterilisation refers to a procedure where small coils are inserted through the cervix and uterus into the fallopian tubes. After the coils are placed, scar tissue develops around them, causing the tubes to seal closed.